Roman armor was not designed for fighting a retreating battle in difficult terrain, and Jewish pursuit turned the retreat into a rout, with nearly the entire Roman twelfth legion being destroyed.
This initial failed Roman attempt on Jerusalem may figure into a New Testament passage, and we will return to it later.
The war between Rome and Judea broke out in Caesarea in 66 A.
D., when Greeks sacrificed birds in front of the Jewish synagogue there, leading to a violent riot.
The Jews in Jerusalem rebelled and staged a successful attack on the Roman garrison in Jerusalem.
The Roman legate of Syria, Cestius Gallus, marched to Jerusalem to attack it, but after initial resistance, his nerve failed him and he ordered a retreat.
Furthermore he says again, 'Lo, they who destroyed this temple shall themselves build it.' That is happening now.In political and military terms, this defeat convinced the Romans of the seriousness of the Jewish revolt.Around this time, the Christian community in Jerusalem evacuated to Pella in Jordan.Eusebius states: "But the people of the church in Jerusalem had been commanded by a revelation, vouchsafed to approved men there before the war, to leave the city and to dwell in a certain town of Perea called Pella." [Eusebius, History of the Church , 3.5.3] Rome responded to their initial setback by sending to the province a much larger army under Vespasian, who opted to save a second attack on Jerusalem for last. when Nero died, and the ensuing struggle for succession eventually brought Vespasian to the throne, with his son Titus taking over the military campaign in Judea.Vespasian concentrated first on reducing Jewish resistance in the Galilee area, and several extremely violent battles were fought there. After subduing the Jewish rebellion elsewhere, Titus returned to Jerusalem in the spring of 70 A. A violent struggle for leadership within the Jewish community in Jerusalem had greatly weakened the city, which fell to the Romans on July 29-30 of that year. Casualties among the Jews were massive, with Josephus citing a figure of 1.1 million killed in the overall campaign.[Josephus, Wars of the Jews, 6.9.3] After Jerusalem was destroyed, the Jews were not allowed to rebuild it or inhabit it. The destruction of Jerusalem and the temple marked the permanent end of the religion of sacrificial Judaism, along with the role of the priests and Levites.Two witnesses with supernatural power then testify from Jerusalem for a time, until they are killed.The city of Jerusalem is called Sodom and Egypt, where also their Lord was crucified.Heb says Every priest stands daily ministering and offering time after time the same sacrifices, which can never take away sins. Furthermore, Hebrews is making a case that the sacrifices before Christ were insufficient.If the writer knew of the destruction of the Temple, the altar, and the entire sacrificial system, he could have used these events to bolster his argument, saying see, they have passed away in any case.In Revelation the situation is complex because there are several very different schools of interpretation of the book.However, the date situation is problematic for all of them.